How to Apply Evidence-Based Healthcare Design to Your Projects: Tips and Tools from Rosalyn Cama's Book
Evidence-Based Healthcare Design by Rosalyn Cama: A Book Review
If you are an interior designer, an architect, a healthcare professional, or simply someone who is interested in how the design of healthcare facilities can affect health outcomes, you should read Evidence-Based Healthcare Design by Rosalyn Cama. This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of evidence-based design for healthcare environments, written by an expert practitioner with over 30 years of experience in the field. In this article, we will review the main features and contents of the book, as well as its benefits and challenges for readers and practitioners. We will also show you how to get a copy of the book in PDF format and where to find more information on the topic.
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What is evidence-based healthcare design?
Evidence-based healthcare design is an approach that uses research and data to inform design decisions that can improve health outcomes, safety, efficiency, productivity, satisfaction, and well-being for patients, staff, and visitors in healthcare facilities. It is based on the premise that the physical environment can have a significant impact on human behavior, emotions, physiology, and psychology, and that by applying scientific evidence to design solutions, we can create optimal environments that support healing, recovery, prevention, and wellness. Evidence-based healthcare design is not a new concept, but it has gained more attention and recognition in recent years due to the growing body of research that supports its effectiveness and value.
Who is Rosalyn Cama and why should you read her book?
Rosalyn Cama's background and expertise
Rosalyn Cama is the president and principal designer of CAMA Inc., an evidence-based planning and interior design firm based in New Haven, Connecticut. She has been working in the field of healthcare design since 1983 and has completed many award-winning projects nationwide, including Yale-New Haven Hospital, American Cancer Center Headquarters and Hope Lodge in New York City, and Stamford Hospital in Connecticut. She is also a frequent writer and speaker on the topic of evidence-based healthcare design, as well as a former national president of The American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) and a current chair of the board for The Center for Health Design (CHD), a nonprofit organization that promotes research and education on evidence-based design.
The main goals and themes of the book
The book Evidence-Based Healthcare Design was published in 2009 by Wiley as part of their Interior Architecture series. It is endorsed by ASID as a key resource for interior designers and architects who want to learn more about the methodology and practice of evidence-based design for healthcare facilities. The main goals of the book are to:
Explain what evidence-based healthcare design is and why it is important for improving health outcomes and quality of care.
Provide a clear and practical four-step methodology for conducting evidence-based design projects, from defining the problem and gathering the evidence, to developing and implementing the design solution, to evaluating the results and sharing the knowledge.
Showcase the best examples of evidence-based healthcare interiors from around the world, illustrating how different design elements and strategies can address various health issues and challenges.
Offer worksheets and tools that guide readers through the process of applying the methodology to their own projects, as well as tips and advice for overcoming common obstacles and barriers.
The main themes of the book are:
The human-centered approach to healthcare design, which focuses on understanding and meeting the needs, preferences, and expectations of the people who use and work in healthcare facilities.
The interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to healthcare design, which involves engaging and involving various stakeholders, such as patients, staff, administrators, researchers, designers, and builders, in the design process.
The holistic and integrative approach to healthcare design, which considers the physical, social, emotional, spiritual, and environmental aspects of health and well-being, as well as the interrelationships and interactions among them.
How is the book structured and what can you learn from it?
The four-step methodology for evidence-based design
The book is divided into four main parts, each corresponding to one of the four steps of the evidence-based design methodology. These are:
Define: This part helps readers to identify and clarify the problem or opportunity that they want to address with their design project. It covers topics such as defining the project scope, goals, objectives, and criteria; conducting a literature review; performing an internal analysis of the existing facility; and collecting data from various sources.
Discover: This part helps readers to analyze and synthesize the data that they have collected in order to generate insights and ideas for their design solution. It covers topics such as organizing and interpreting the data; identifying patterns, themes, gaps, and opportunities; developing hypotheses and scenarios; and creating design concepts.
Design: This part helps readers to develop and implement their design solution based on the evidence and insights that they have gathered. It covers topics such as selecting and prioritizing design elements and strategies; creating design drawings, specifications, and documents; communicating and presenting the design solution; and managing the construction process.
Evaluate: This part helps readers to measure and assess the impact and effectiveness of their design solution on health outcomes and quality of care. It covers topics such as developing an evaluation plan; collecting data before and after the intervention; analyzing and comparing the data; reporting and disseminating the findings; and applying feedback and lessons learned.
The best examples of evidence-based healthcare interiors
Throughout the book, readers can find many examples of evidence-based healthcare interiors that illustrate how different design elements and strategies can address various health issues and challenges. Some of these examples are:
The Planetree Model Hospital Project at Griffin Hospital in Derby, Connecticut, which demonstrates how a patient-centered design can enhance patient satisfaction, comfort, privacy, safety, empowerment, education, family involvement, spirituality, nutrition, arts, entertainment, nature, community integration, staff retention, productivity, efficiency, innovation, quality improvement, cost reduction, revenue generation, market differentiation, philanthropy attraction, and public recognition.
The American Cancer Society Hope Lodge in New York City, which demonstrates how a supportive design can provide a home-like environment for cancer patients who need temporary lodging during their treatment. The design features include private bedrooms with bathrooms; shared living rooms with fireplaces; communal kitchens with dining areas; laundry facilities; libraries with computers; meditation rooms; gardens with water features; artwork by cancer survivors; natural materials and colors; natural lighting and views; acoustical control and privacy; wayfinding and signage; accessibility and safety.
The Center for Health Design Pebble Project at Bronson Methodist Hospital in Kalamazoo, Michigan, which demonstrates how a participatory design can involve various stakeholders in the design process and create a culture of innovation and learning. The design features include decentralized nursing stations; private patient rooms with bathrooms; family zones with sofa beds; staff zones with sinks and storage; patient zones with windows and controls; sliding doors and handrails; noise reduction measures; artwork and music; natural lighting and views; healing gardens and courtyards.
The practical worksheets and tools for applying the methodology
At the end of each chapter, readers can find worksheets and tools that guide them through the process of applying the methodology to their own projects. Some of these worksheets tools are:
Problem Statement Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to define the problem or opportunity that they want to address with their design project, as well as the project scope, goals, objectives, and criteria.
Literature Review Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to conduct a literature review on the topic of their design project, as well as to summarize and synthesize the main findings and implications.
Internal Analysis Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to perform an internal analysis of the existing facility that they want to improve or redesign, as well as to identify its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Data Collection Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to collect data from various sources, such as observations, interviews, surveys, focus groups, audits, benchmarks, and metrics, as well as to document and organize the data.
Data Analysis Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to analyze and interpret the data that they have collected, as well as to identify patterns, themes, gaps, and opportunities.
Hypothesis Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to develop hypotheses or assumptions about how their design solution will affect health outcomes and quality of care, as well as to test and validate their hypotheses.
Scenario Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create scenarios or stories that describe how their design solution will work in practice, as well as to illustrate and communicate their scenarios.
Design Concept Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create design concepts or ideas that address the problem or opportunity that they have defined, as well as to evaluate and select their design concepts.
Design Element Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to select and prioritize design elements and strategies that support their design concept, as well as to explain and justify their choices.
Design Drawing Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create design drawings, such as floor plans, elevations, sections, perspectives, and renderings, that illustrate their design solution.
Design Specification Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create design specifications, such as materials, finishes, colors, furniture, fixtures, equipment, lighting, acoustics, ventilation, and technology, that detail their design solution.
Design Document Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create design documents, such as contracts, budgets, schedules, permits, codes, standards, and regulations, that guide and manage their design project.
Design Presentation Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create design presentations, such as reports, brochures, posters, models, videos, and websites, that communicate and present their design solution to various audiences.
Evaluation Plan Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to develop an evaluation plan that specifies the goals, objectives, questions, methods, data sources, data collection tools, data analysis techniques, and reporting formats for measuring and assessing the impact and effectiveness of their design solution.
Evaluation Report Worksheet: This worksheet helps readers to create an evaluation report that summarizes and synthesizes the findings and conclusions of their evaluation study, as well as the recommendations and implications for practice and research.
What are the benefits and challenges of evidence-based healthcare design?
The benefits for patients, staff, and organizations
Evidence-based healthcare design can offer many benefits for patients, staff, and organizations that use and work in healthcare facilities. Some of these benefits are:
Improved health outcomes: Evidence-based healthcare design can improve health outcomes by reducing infections, complications, errors, falls, injuries, pain, stress, anxiety, depression, and length of stay; by increasing comfort, privacy, safety, satisfaction, empowerment, education, family involvement; by promoting healing recovery prevention wellness
Improved task performance and productivity: Evidence-based healthcare design can improve task performance and productivity by enhancing efficiency effectiveness accuracy quality communication collaboration coordination teamwork innovation learning
Improved actions and behavior: Evidence-based healthcare design can improve actions and behavior by influencing motivation attitude perception emotion cognition memory attention concentration decision making problem solving creativity
Improved cost-effectiveness and sustainability: Evidence-based healthcare design can improve cost-effectiveness and sustainability by reducing operational maintenance energy waste costs; by increasing revenue generation market differentiation philanthropy attraction; by supporting environmental social economic ethical responsibility
The challenges and barriers for implementation
Evidence-based healthcare design can also face many challenges and barriers for implementation. Some of these challenges and barriers are:
Lack of awareness and understanding: Many people may not be aware of or understand what evidence-based healthcare design is and why it is important for improving health outcomes and quality of care. They may also have misconceptions or prejudices about the concept and its applicability.
Lack of evidence and data: There may not be enough or adequate evidence and data to support or inform design decisions. The evidence and data may also be difficult to access, interpret, synthesize, or apply to specific contexts and situations.
Lack of resources and support: There may not be enough or appropriate resources and support to conduct or implement evidence-based design projects. The resources and support may include time, money, staff, expertise, technology, equipment, materials, space, policies, regulations, standards, guidelines, incentives, recognition, etc.
Lack of collaboration and participation: There may not be enough or effective collaboration and participation among various stakeholders involved in or affected by evidence-based design projects. The stakeholders may include patients, staff, administrators, researchers, designers, builders, etc. They may also have different or conflicting interests, needs, preferences, expectations, perspectives, values, goals, objectives, criteria, etc.
Lack of evaluation and feedback: There may not be enough or rigorous evaluation and feedback to measure and assess the impact and effectiveness of evidence-based design solutions on health outcomes and quality of care. The evaluation and feedback may also be difficult to plan, conduct, analyze, report, or disseminate.
The future trends and opportunities for innovation
Evidence-based healthcare design is a dynamic and evolving field that offers many future trends and opportunities for innovation. Some of these trends and opportunities are:
More research and evidence: There will be more research and evidence on the impact of the physical environment on health outcomes and quality of care. The research and evidence will also be more diverse, comprehensive, reliable, valid, relevant, and accessible.
More technology and data: There will be more technology and data that can facilitate and enhance the process and practice of evidence-based healthcare design. The technology and data will also be more advanced, integrated, interactive, adaptive, personalized, and intelligent.
More innovation and creativity: There will be more innovation and creativity in developing and implementing evidence-based healthcare design solutions. The solutions will also be more holistic, integrative, human-centered, interdisciplinary, collaborative, participatory, customized, flexible, scalable, and sustainable.
How can you get a copy of the book and learn more about the topic?
How to download the PDF version of the book
If you want to get a copy of the book Evidence-Based Healthcare Design by Rosalyn Cama in PDF format, you can download it from the Wiley website. Here are the steps to follow:
Click on the "Download Product Flyer" button on the right side of the page.
A new tab will open with a PDF file of the book's flyer. You can save it to your device or print it out.
The flyer contains a brief overview of the book's features and contents, as well as a link to the Wiley Online Library where you can access the full text of the book online.
To access the full text of the book online, you need to have a Wiley Online Library account or access through your institution or library. If you don't have an account or access, you can create one for free or request a trial.
Once you have an account or access, you can go to https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9780470433744
You will see the book's title page with a table of contents on the left side. You can click on any chapter to read it online or download it as a PDF file.
How to access other resources and references on evidence-based healthcare design
If you want to learn more about the topic of evidence-based healthcare design, you can access other resources and references from various sources. Some of these sources are:
a nonprofit organization that promotes research and education on evidence-based design for healthcare facilities. It offers various programs and services, such as the Pebble Project, the EDAC certification, the CHD Affiliate program, the Healthcare Environment Awards, the Environmental Standards Council, the Knowledge Repository, the Toolbox, the Design Insights and Strategies Tool (DIST), the Safety Risk Assessment Tool (SRA), the Research Coalition, the Research Advisory Services, the Learning Center, the Academy Journal, the ICONS podcast, the EBD Journal Club, the EBD Touchstone Awards, the EBD Champions Workshop, the EBD Certificate Program, and more. You can visit their website at https://www.healthdesign.org/
The American Society of Interior Designers: This is a professional association that represents and supports interior designers and advocates for the value and impact of design. It offers various resources and opportunities for interior designers who work in healthcare settings, such as the ASID Academy, the ASID Research Portal, the ASID Outcome of Design Awards, the ASID Design Impact Awards Program, the ASID Foundation Transform Grants, the ASID Foundation Scholarships and Awards, the ASID ICON magazine, the ASID Podcasts, the ASID Webinars, the ASID National Conference, and more. You can visit their website at https://www.asid.org/
The International Academy for Design and Health: This is a global network that connects and inspires people who share a common interest in design and health. It organizes various e